What is Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract?
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a tree native to certain tropical regions in Africa, including South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. Known as ‘The Tree of Life’, the baobab is an icon of the African savannah, a symbol of life and positivity in a landscape where little else can thrive. Growing wild in thirty-two countries across the continent, it is at the heart of many traditional remedies and folklore and can have a lifespan of up to 5000 years.The baobab is a prehistoric tree that is highly adapted to its environment. During the rainy season it absorbs and stores water in its trunk, enabling it to produce a nutrient-dense fruit when all around is dry and arid. This is how it became known as The Tree of Life,Baobab trees produce fruit with a powdery pulp found to contain high amounts of vitamin C. Often consumed as a food or added to beverages, baobab fruit is sometimes used for medicinal purposes.Seeds contain appreciable quantities of crude protein, digestible carbohydrates and oil, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, Ca and Fe. They can be eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour and thus added to soups and stews. Processing eliminates a number of anti-nutritional factors present in the seed. Baobab leaves are superior in nutritional quality to fruit pulp, and contain significant levels of vitamin A. The leaves are a staple for many populations in Africa, and are eaten fresh or dried. Several plant parts have interesting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and baobab has been used extensively since ancient times in traditional medicine.
Chemical constituents of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract
Baobab because of its rich in A variety of vitamins and nutrients known as «the tree of life», the baobab and fruits are rich in including vitamin C, A, D, F, and riboflavin, niacin, A variety of vitamins and nutrientsThe bark, which contains several flavonols, has been distributed commercially in Europe under the name ‘cortex cael cedra’, as a fever treatment, and substitute for cinchona bark.
Chemical analyses have reported the presence of various potentially bioactive ingredients including triterpenoids,flavonoids and phenolic compounds.
Now is the main application of polyphenols
Benefits of taking Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract supplements:
In traditional African medicine, baobab fruit is used to treat a number of illnesses (includingasthma, fever, diarrhea, malaria and smallpox). In addition, practitioners of traditional African medicine often use baobab fruit to curb inflammation.Baobab-containing products are often marketed as a rich source of antioxidants. Some proponents claim that, due to their antioxidant content, products made with baobab fruit can help slow the aging processand protect against major illnesses like heart disease and cancer. Baobab is also said to protect against inflammation-related conditions (including type 2 diabetes, arthritis, and allergies, as well as heart disease and cancer).
Bark, fruit pulp and seeds appear to contain an antidote to poisoning by Strophanthus species,theycontain the alkaloid “adansonin”, which has a strophanthus-like action. The juice of these species has been used widely as an arrow poison especially in East
- Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract and glycemic response
> The polyphenol-rich baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata L.) reduces starch digestion and glycemic response in humans.
Coe SA1, Clegg M, Armengol M, Ryan L.
Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK.
The baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata L.) is found throughout regions of Africa and is becoming increasingly recognized for its high nutrient and polyphenol content. Polyphenols have been beneficial for their effects on reducing the glycemic response (GR) and for improving various other metabolic parameters. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that the baobab fruit extract would reduce starch digestion in vitro and would show potential for reducing the GR and for increasing satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis in humans. Six extracts of baobab from 6 different locations in Africa were measured for their antioxidant and polyphenol content using the ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power and the Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. Baobab extract was baked into white bread at different doses to determine the optimal dose for reducing starch breakdown and sugar release from white bread after an in vitro digestion procedure. In vivo, baobab extract was consumed in solution at both a low-dose (18.5 g) and a high-dose (37 g) aqueous drink in 250 mL of water along with white bread, and resulting GR, satiety, and postprandial energy expenditure were measured. All extracts in this study were shown to be good sources of polyphenols. Baobab fruit extract added to white bread at 1.88 % significantly (P < .05) reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples. In vivo, the baobab fruit extract at both low and high doses significantly (P < .05) reduced GR, although there was no significant effect on satiety or on energy expenditure.
2.Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial
>The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of fourteen ethnomedicinally used African spices and culinary herbs.
Dzoyem JP1, Kuete V2, McGaw LJ3, Eloff JN4.
Culinary herbs and spices are widely used ethnomedically across Africa. They are traditionally employed in the treatment of several ailments including inflammation disorders, pain alleviation and infectious diseases. Pharmacological studies are necessary to provide a scientific basis to substantiate their traditional use and safety. In this study, the 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, antimycobacterial and the cytotoxic activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of fourteen edible plants were investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated by the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay method. The antioxidant activity was determined using free-radical scavenging assays. The antimycobacterial activity was determined by a broth microdilution method against three species of mycobacteria: Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium fortuitum using tetrazolium violet as growth indicator. The cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on Vero monkey kidney cells.
All the extracts tested had some 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity ranging from 32.9 to 78.64%. Adansonia digitata (fruit) had the highest antioxidant capacity (IC₅₀ values of 8.15 μg/mL and 9.16 μg/mL in the DPPH and ABTS assays respectively; TEAC of 0.75 in the FRAP assay) along with the highest amount of total phenolics (237.68 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (16.14 mg E/g). There were good correlations between DPPH and ABTS values (R(2) 0.98) and between total phenolics and total flavonoids (R(2) 0.94). Tamarindus indica had significant antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium aurum (MIC 78 μg/mL). As could be expected with edible plants, all the extracts had a relatively low cytotoxicity with LC₅₀ values higher than 102 μg/mL with the exception of the two Aframomum species (33 and 74 μg/mL).
This study provides scientific support for some of the the traditional uses and the pharmacological activities of the culinary herbs and spices investigated. The results suggest that increasing intake of some of these herbs may be useful in preventing or reducing the progression of lifestyle-related diseases. The diversity of the pharmacological activities of the extract from the fruit of Adansonia digitata suggested that this plant might be valuable for application in human and animal health.
- Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract and Antibacterial
>Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of seven Cameroonian dietary plants against bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes.
Seukep JA1, Fankam AG, Djeussi DE, Voukeng IK, Tankeo SB, Noumdem JA, Kuete AH, Kuete V.
The morbidity and mortality caused by bacterial infections significantly increased with resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This is partially due to the activation of efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The present work designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Sesamum indicum, Sesamum radiatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Corchous olitorius, Cyperus esculentus, Adansonia digitata, Aframomum kayserianum), against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria over expressing active efflux pumps. The standard phytochemical methods were used to detect the main classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts. The antibacterial activities of the studied extracts in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor (PAβN) were evaluated using liquid microbroth dilution method. The results obtained indicated that apart from the extract of C. esculentus, all other samples contained alkaloids, phenols and polyphenols meanwhile other classes of chemicals were selectively present. The studied extracts displayed antibacterial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on the majority of the 27 tested microbial strains. The extract of S. indicum was active against 77.77% of the tested microorganisms whilst the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) was recorded with that of A. kayserianum against E. aerogenes EA294. The results of the present work provide baseline information on the possible used of the tested Cameroonian dietary plants in the treatment of bacterial infections including multi-drug resistant phenotypes.
- Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract and Gram-negative bacteria.
>Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Djeussi DE, Noumedem JA, Seukep JA, Fankam AG, Voukeng IK, Tankeo SB, Nkuete AH, Kuete V.
In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica).
The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria.
The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml.
The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes.
5.Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract and Antimalarial
In vivo antimalarial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected antimalarial plants.
Musila MF1, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Munyao JM.
Malaria continues to kill over a million people each year and in many populations affected by malaria, conventional drugs are often unaffordable or inaccessible. Historically, plants have been a prominent source of antimalarial drugs. Those plants currently used by indigenous people to treat malaria should be documented and investigated as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
To investigate in vivo antimalarial activity, toxicity and carry out phytochemical screening of selected plants which have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Organic and water extracts of four medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in traditional health systems of Msambweni people in Kenya were tested for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei and brine shrimp lethality. They were also screened for their major phytochemical constituents.
Aqueous extract of the stem bark of Adansonia digitata exhibited highest chemosuppression of parasitaemia, >60% in a murine model of Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous and organic extracts of Launaea cornuta and Zanthoxylum chalybeum were toxic to the brine shrimp (LD50<1000μg/ml) while aqueous and organic extracts of Adansonia digitata and aqueous extracts of Canthium glaucum were not toxic to brine shrimp (LD50>1000μg/ml). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and flavonoids in all the crude extracts of the selected plant species studied. Sesquiterpene lactones and saponis were present in organic extracts but absent in the aqueous extracts of Adansonia digitata, Canthium glaucum, Launaea cornuta and Zanthoxylum chalybeum.
The results showed that the crude extracts of Adansonia digitata and Canthium glaucum demonstrated promising antimalarial activity and there is potential for isolation of lead compounds from their extracts.
All in all, have the following effect:
- Source of soluble fibers with PREBIOTIC-LIKE activity in vitro.
- Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activity
- Anti-diarrhoea, anti-dysentery activity, anticostipation
- Source of micronutrients
- Natural and interesting excipient
Side effects and safety of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract appears to have few side effects when used properly for short periods of time.
Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract
Dosage of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract
Many Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract supplements recommend a dosage of around 1500 mg to 2500 mg.
Consult your physician if you have any questions about the proper use of Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Extract supplements.