What is Black Mustard Seed?
Mustard seeds are from the mustard plant, which is a cruciferous vegetable related to broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbage. While there are approximately forty different varieties of mustard plants, there are three principal types used to make mustard seeds: black mustard (Brassica nigra), white mustard (Brassica alba) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). Black mustard seeds have the most pungent taste, while white mustard seeds, which are actually yellow in color, are the most mild and are the ones used to make American yellow mustard. Brown mustard, which is actually dark yellow in color, has a pungent acrid taste and is the type used to make Dijon mustard.Mustard seeds are sold either whole or as a ground powder.Mustard seed is a rich source of oil and protein. The seed has oil as high as 46-48%, and whole seed meal has 43.6% protein.Mustard is used as a food flavoring, for forage, as an emetic, and diuretic, as well as a topical treatment for inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism. Mustard also has potential pharmacological effects in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes;
Chemical constituents of Black Mustard Seed Extract
Mustard seed Powder Extract contain numerous chemical constituents, including phytoalexins (sinalexin, sinalbins A and B), sterols and steryl esters (primarily sitosterol and campesterol), and flavonoids (eg, apigenin, chalcone). Sinalbin is responsible for the flavor of white mustard seed; Mustard seeds contain high amounts of phytonutrients, particularly glucosinolates, Glucosinolates are a sugar-derived compound that is found naturally in many flowering plants. Isothiocyanates found in plants may have a protective effect against certain types of cancer, especially lung cancer.Mustard seed Powder Extract ontain a variety of minerals, including iron, magnesium, zinc, calcium and phosphorus. Getting adequate amounts of these minerals is essential for the normal function of many biological and biochemical processes within your body and can help prevent a mineral deficiency, which can have potentially debilitating side effects.
Benefits of taking Black Mustard Seed Extract
Numerous mechanisms of action are proposed for potential cancer chemoprotective activity of organic isothiocyanates. The cytotoxicity of mustard derivatives on neuroblastoma cells has been investigated.the effects of organic isothiocyanates on P-glycoprotein and multidrug, resistance-associated, protein (MRP1)-mediated transport in multidrug resistant (MDR) human cancer cell lines. Both P-glycoprotein and MRP1 are involved in the bioavailability, distribution, and elimination of many drugs. Dietary organic isothiocyanates inhibited the P-glycoprotein– and MRP1–mediated efflux of daunomycin and vinblastine in MDR human cancer cells, enhancing the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.
1.Black Mustard Seed Extract and hepatotoxicity
>Anti-proliferative activities of sinigrin on carcinogen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
Jie M1, Cheung WM1, Yu V1, Zhou Y1, Tong PH1, Ho JW1.
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. A very high incidence of new liver cancer cases is diagnosed every year, and metastasis has been found to correlate to poor prognoses in humans. Better treatments for liver cancer are thus clearly needed. Sinigrin is one of the major ingredients present in Brassica nigra, which has been used in combination with other herbs for treatment of various diseases. The anti-proliferative activities of sinigrin were studied in a model of carcinogen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally administered with sinigrin on a daily basis for three months before sacrifice. Sinigrin was found to significantly inhibit the proliferation of liver tumor cells; the number of surface tumors in the rat liver was dramatically reduced. Sinigrin induced apoptosis of liver cancer cells through up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 family members and caspases. Our findings indicated that the liver functions were gradually restored after treatment with sinigrin and that the agent did not cause liver toxicity. Cell cycle analysis indicated that sinigrin caused cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. The results suggest that sinigrin exerts important anti-proliferative activities in carcinogen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, and highlight the potential of sinigrin as an anti-cancer agent for liver cancer.
2.Antigenotoxic action of isothiocyanate-containing mustard as determined by two cancer biomarkers in a human intervention trial.
Lamy E1, Garcia-Käufer M, Prinzhorn J, Mersch-Sundermann V.
1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University Medical Center Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse, Freiburg, Germany. evelyn.
Chemopreventive constituents in food plants, such as brassica-derived isothiocyanates (ITC), have been shown to be quite effective in the prevention of genotoxic DNA damage in cell culture models and carcinogenesis in laboratory animals. We have conducted a controlled intervention study with 14 participants (10 female, four male) using DNA damage and micronucleus formation as intermediate endpoints to assess the chemopreventive nature of mustard. For this trial, human volunteers were fed 20 g (25 mg total ITC) of mustard preparation, daily, for 4 days. Heparinized blood was collected by venipuncture and processed for the comet assay or the micronucleus test. A 3-day intervention with mustard led to a significant reduction in DNA damage and micronucleus formation induced by hydrogen peroxide or benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide. Clinical liver parameters were unchanged by the intervention; however, cholesterol levels were significantly reduced. The results of this study indicate that consumption of low amounts of ITC-containing mustard quickly and effectively modulates cytoprotective factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or blood. The fact that these observations were confirmed by two cytogenetic biomarkers for cancer risk implies that even short-term intake of ITC-containing vegetables might indeed be associated with reduced cancer risk.
- Black Mustard Seed Extract and colorectal carcinoma
Mustard seeds (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuate azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis.
Yuan H1, Zhu M, Guo W, Jin L, Chen W, Brunk UT, Zhao M.
Mustard seeds (MS), which are consumed in considerable amounts by the Japanese people that, interestingly, have the longest life expectancy in the world, are known to contain a number of yet not fully defined but quite powerful anti-oxidants. A suspension of extracted MS was found to suppress oxidized-LDL-induced macrophage respiratory burst in vitro, to prevent growth, and to induce apoptotic death of SW480 cells (a human colon cancer cell line), while no such effects were found for normal 3T3 cells. A diet enriched with MS decreased plasma levels of the lipid peroxidation product malonaldehyde in mice exposed to the colon cancer-inducer azoxymethane (AOM). Such a diet also dose-dependently enhanced the activity of several anti-oxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and GSH-peroxidase and, moreover, reduced AOM-mediated formation of colon adenomas by about 50%. Further studies are required to detail and explore the beneficial effects of MS and their rich content of powerful anti-oxidants.
>Dietary mustard seeds (Sinapis alba Linn) suppress 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced immuno-imbalance and colonic carcinogenesis in rats.
Zhu M1, Yuan H, Guo W, Li X, Jin L, Brunk UT, Han J, Zhao M, Lu Y.
Department of Gastroenterology , Nanfang Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
In a Wistar rat model, prolonged supplementation of mustard seed (MS) to the diet significantly ameliorates the induction of colorectal carcinomas by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The expression of the splenocyte major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) was found significantly enhanced, whereas that of the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) was significantly decreased. Compared to that of control animals, the proportion of spleenic B- and dendritic cells (DC) was amplified in the MS group. The expressions of MHCI, as well as that of MHCII, were increased in DC cells; whereas in B cells, MHCI expression was augmented but that of MHCII moderately decreased. The percentages of CD8+CD28+ and CD4+CD28+ cells were increased in the MS group, while the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ subset was depressed. Plasma analysis showed that DMH-exposure induced amplified amounts of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-beta, whereas MS feeding counteracted this effect but enhanced IL-2, IL12p70, IL21, TNF-alpha, and interferon-gamma. In the SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell-line, the cytotoxicity of spleenic T-cells from MS-fed animals was significantly increased. In the DMH-exposed rats, the expression of perforin in the spleenic T-cells was dramatically decreased, whereas MS abolished this depression. In summary, dietary MS suppresses DMH-induced immuno-imbalance as well as colon carcinogenesis in rats.
>Contribution of endogenous plant myrosinase to the antimicrobial activity of deodorized mustard against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fermented dry sausage.
Cordeiro RP1, Wu C1, Holley RA2.
This work investigated the antimicrobial activity of residual endogenous plant myrosinase in Oriental and yellow mustard powders and a deoiled meal (which contained more glucosinolate than unextracted mustard powder of each type of mustard), against Escherichia coli O15:H7 during dry-fermented sausage ripening. When small amounts of «hot» mustard powder or meal containing endogenous plant myrosinase were added to fully-deodorized powders and a meal of the same type, pathogen reduction rates were enhanced. The higher glucosinolate level in the deoiled mustard meal enabled the use of 50% less mustard in dry sausage to achieve the mandatory ≥5logCFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. The myrosinase-like activity present in E. coli O157:H7 contributed to glucosinolate hydrolysis in sausages with fully-deodorized, deoiled mustard meal, although the period necessary for a 5log pathogen reduction was 14d longer. Yellow mustard derivatives were more potently antimicrobial than Oriental mustard.
- Black Mustard Seed Extract and inhibits bladder cancer growth
Allyl isothiocyanate-rich mustard seed powder inhibits bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion.
Bhattacharya A1, Li Y, Wade KL, Paonessa JD, Fahey JW, Zhang Y.
Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which occurs in many common cruciferous vegetables, was recently shown to be selectively delivered to bladder cancer tissues through urinary excretion and to inhibit bladder cancer development in rats. The present investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that AITC-containing cruciferous vegetables also inhibit bladder cancer development. We focused on an AITC-rich mustard seed powder (MSP-1). AITC was stably stored as its glucosinolate precursor (sinigrin) in MSP-1. Upon addition of water, however, sinigrin was readily hydrolyzed by the accompanying endogenous myrosinase. This myrosinase was also required for full conversion of sinigrin to AITC in vivo, but the matrix of MSP-1 had no effect on AITC bioavailability. Sinigrin itself was not bioactive, whereas hydrated MSP-1 caused apoptosis and G(2)/M phase arrest in bladder cancer cell lines in vitro. Comparison between hydrated MSP-1 and pure sinigrin with added myrosinase suggested that the anticancer effect of MSP-1 was derived principally, if not entirely, from the AITC generated from sinigrin. In an orthotopic rat bladder cancer model, oral MSP-1 at 71.5 mg/kg (sinigrin dose of 9 μmol/kg) inhibited bladder cancer growth by 34.5% (P < 0.05) and blocked muscle invasion by 100%. Moreover, the anticancer activity was associated with significant modulation of key cancer therapeutic targets, including vascular endothelial growth factor, cyclin B1 and caspase 3. On an equimolar basis, the anticancer activity of AITC delivered as MSP-1 appears to be more robust than that of pure AITC. MSP-1 is thus an attractive delivery vehicle for AITC and it strongly inhibits bladder cancer development and progression.
Black Mustard Seed Extract and Antiepileptic
Antiepileptic and Antioxidant Effect of Brassica nigra on Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling in Mice.
Kiasalari Z1, Khalili M, Roghani M, Sadeghian A.
Department of Physiology and Neurophysiology Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran . ; Herbal Medicine Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
Considering the high rate of epilepsy today, with respect to the insufficiency of the available therapies, new strategies and methods are recommended for medical treatment of epileptic patients. Therefore, the present study experimentally investigated the anticonvulsant effect of a herbal medicine candidate brassica nigra, by using kindling method. Sixty male mice were randomly selected and divided into six experimental groups (n = 10) including: 1-control, 2-pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-kindled mice, 3-positive control group received valproate (100 mg/Kg) as anti-convulsant drug, 4-5 and 6 received brassica nigra seed extract in three doses (75, 150 and 300 mg/Kg; IP). All groups except for the control ones were kindled by 11 period injections of PTZ (35 mg/Kg; IP). In the 12th injection, all groups except for the control group were tested for PTZ challenge dose (75 mg/Kg). However, the exhibited phases of seizure (0-6) were observed and noted till 30 min after the PTZ injection. At last, the brains of all the mice were removed and then malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) levels of the brain tissues were determined. Statistical analysis of the data shows that the seed extract could reduce the intensity, improvement and duration of seizure. In addition, the brassica nigra extract increased the SOD and NO levels and decreased the MDA level in the brain tissues. Attained results show that the extract of Brassica nigra seed can be used in grand mal seizure treatment. Moreover, the antiepileptic effect of this extract is probably caused by its antioxidant properties and acts via enzyme activity mechanism.
Black Mustard Seed Extract and DNA damage
Assessment of DNA damage and repair in adults consuming allyl isothiocyanate or Brassica vegetables.
Charron CS1, Clevidence BA, Albaugh GA, Kramer MH, Vinyard BT, Milner JA, Novotny JA.
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a dietary component with possible anticancer effects, though much information about AITC and cancer has been obtained from cell studies. To investigate the effect of AITC on DNA integrity in vivo, a crossover study was conducted. Adults (n=46) consumed AITC, AITC-rich vegetables [mustard and cabbage (M/C)] or a control treatment with a controlled diet for 10 days each. On day 11, volunteers provided blood and urine before and after consuming treatments. Volunteers were characterized for genotype for GSTM1 and GSTT1 (glutathione S-transferases) and XPD (DNA repair). DNA integrity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed by single-cell gel electrophoresis. Urine was analyzed for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and creatinine. Ten-day intake of neither AITC nor M/C resulted in statistically significant differences in DNA strand breaks [least squares mean (LSmean) % DNA in tail±S.E.M.: 4.8±0.6 for control, 5.7±0.7 for AITC, 5.3±0.6 for M/C] or urinary 8-oxodG (LSmean μg 8-oxodG/g creatinine±S.E.M.: 2.95±0.09 for control, 2.88±0.09 for AITC, 3.06±0.09 for M/C). Both AITC and M/C increased DNA strand breaks 3 h postconsumption (LSmean % DNA in tail±S.E.M.: 3.2±0.7 for control, 8.3±1.7 for AITC, 8.0±1.7 for M/C), and this difference disappeared at 6 h (4.2±0.9 for control, 5.7±1.2 for AITC, 5.5±1.2 for M/C). Genotypes for GSTM1, GSTT1 and XPD were not associated with treatment effects. In summary, DNA damage appeared to be induced in the short term by AITC and AITC-rich products, but that damage disappeared quickly, and neither AITC nor AITC-rich products affected DNA base excision repair.
The potential of B. juncea as a natural source of the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol has been described. Aqueous extracts of mustard inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 -ascorbate on human erythrocyte membranes.
Effects (decreased serum glucose and increased insulin response) on postprandial glucose
Allyl isothiocyanate has antimicrobial and antifungal activity, and the antibacterial effect of mustard flour and oil has been evaluated for application in the processed meat industry for its inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and salmonella.
Because of its topical irritant effects, It has been used traditionally as a rubefacient and irritant.
Side effects and safety of Black Mustard Seed Extract
Black Mustard Seed Extract appears to have few side effects when used properly for short periods of time.Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take Black Mustard Seed Extract.
Dosage of Black Mustard Seed Extract
Consult your physician if you have any questions about the proper use of Black Mustard Seed Extract supplements.