What is Ceratonia siliqua Extract?
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) is a leguminous evergreen tree of the family Leguminosae (pulse family). Although it was originally native to Mediterranean regions, it is now cultivated in many warm climates, including Florida and California. The pods may be ground into a flour, which is often used as a cocoa substitute because it has a somewhat similar taste to chocolate and one-third the calories.
Carob has been used to treat infantile diarrhea and carob bean gum has been used to control hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol) and as a dietary adjunct to elevated plasma cholesterol management.
Chemical constituents of Ceratonia siliqua Extract
Ripe carob pods contain a large amount of condensed tannins (16-20% of dry weight). Constituents of the seed, or bean, are (by weight): coat (30-33%), endosperm (42-46%) and embryo or germ (23-25%). The seed coat contains antioxidants. The endosperm is the galactomannan carob bean gum. It consists of a polysaccharide composed of mannose and galactose sugar units (ratio 4:1) which is highly viscous in water, over a wide range of temperature and pH. Carob seed oil has a very high essential fatty acid content.
Benefits of taking Ceratonia siliqua Extract
Ceratonia siliqua Extract and antioxidant
>Characterization of bioactive compounds and ameliorative effects of Ceratonia siliqua leaf extract against CCl₄ induced hepatic oxidative damage and renal failure in rats.
Source-Biopesticides Team (LPIP), Center of Biotechnology of Sfax, PB 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia.
Ceratonia siliqua is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and Tunisian traditional folk medicine. Among the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction (EACs) exhibited the highest total phenolic and flavonoids content. The antioxidant activity in vitro systems showed a more significant potent free radical scavenging activity of this extract than other analysis fractions. The HPLC finger print of EACs active extract showed the presence of six phenolic compounds. The in vivo results showed that oral administration of CCl(4) enhanced levels of hepatic and renal markers (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, γ-GT, urea and creatinine) in the serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both liver and kidney. The pre-treatment of experimental rats with 250 mg/kg (BW) of the EACs, by intraperitoneal injection for 8 days, prevented CCl(4) induced disorders in the levels of hepatic and kidney markers. The biochemical changes were in accordance with histopathological observations suggesting a marked hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect of the EACs extract.
>Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.
Source-University of Algarve , Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Campus of Gambelas, Faro, Portugal.
Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Among females, cv. Aida had the highest radical scavenging activity and total content of phenolics, Mulata the highest capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and Gasparinha the strongest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The decrease in cell viability was associated with apoptosis on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 lines. (+)-Catechin and gallic acid (GA) were the main compounds identified in the extracts, and GA contributed to the antioxidant activity. Our results show that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar, and provide new knowledge about the advantages of hermaphrodite trees over female cultivars, namely, as a source of compounds with biological interest, which may represent an increase of their agronomic interest.
Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts.
>Custódio L, Escapa AL, Fernandes E, Fajardo A, Aligué R, Alberício F, Neng N, Nogueira JM, Romano A.
Source-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Genomics and Biotechnology (IBB/CGB), Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical content and to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour. The extracts were rich in phenolic compounds, had considerable antioxidant activity, and reduced the viability of cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. The chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts were significantly affected by gender and cultivar. Female cultivar Galhosa had the highest levels of phenolic compounds, and the highest antioxidant activity. Extracts from the hermaphrodite trees and from the female cultivars Galhosa and Costela/Canela exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity. The most abundant compound was theophylline. The phenolic content was correlated to both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Our findings provide new knowledge about the health implications of consuming food supplemented with carob germ flour.
Ceratonia siliqua Extract and Antidepressant
Antidepressant activity of Ceratonia siliqua L. fruit extract, a source of polyphenols.
Source-MGV’s Pharmacy College, Maharashtra University, Nashik, India.
A previous study from our laboratory has shown the facilitatory effect of Ceratonia siliqua L. (Fabaceae) on the dopaminergic function. This study investigates the involvement of monoamines in the antidepressant activity of the total polyphenol content of Ceratonia siliqua extract (CS) in mice using a tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The immobility time in the TST and FST were significantly reduced by CS (25 and 50 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The extract considerably attenuated the duration of immobility induced by prazosin (62.5 µg kg(-1), i.p., an α-adrenoceptor antagonist) and eticlopride (0.1 µg kg(-1), i.p., a classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist) in both TST and FST, whereas the extract could not modify the immobility in mice treated with p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg kg(-1), i.p., ×3 days; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) and baclofen (10 mg kg(-1), i.p., GABAB agonist). This suggests that the antidepressant effect of CS is mediated by dopamine and noradrenaline.
Ceratonia siliqua Extract and Cancer
>Ruminal biohydrogenation as affected by tannins in vitro.
Source-Sezione di Scienze delle Produzioni Animali, University of Catania, DACPA, via Valdisavoia 5, Catania 95123, Italy.
The aim of the present work was to study the effects of tannins from carob (CT; Ceratonia siliqua), acacia leaves (AT; Acacia cyanophylla) and quebracho (QT; Schinopsis lorentzii) on ruminal biohydrogenation in vitro. The tannins extracted from CT, AT and QT were incubated for 12 h in glass syringes in cow buffered ruminal fluid (BRF) with hay or hay plus concentrate as a substrate. Within each feed, three concentrations of tannins were used (0.0, 0.6 and 1.0 mg/ml BRF). The branched-chain volatile fatty acids, the branched-chain fatty acids and the microbial protein concentration were reduced (P < 0.05) by tannins. In the tannin-containing fermenters, vaccenic acid was accumulated (+23 %, P < 0.01) while stearic acid was reduced ( — 16 %, P < 0.0005). The concentration of total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in the BRF was not affected by tannins. The assay on linoleic acid isomerase (LA-I) showed that the enzyme activity (nmol CLA produced/min per mg protein) was unaffected by the inclusion of tannins in the fermenters. However, the CLA produced by LA-I (nmol/ml per min) was lower in the presence of tannins. These results suggest that tannins reduce ruminal biohydrogenation through the inhibition of the activity of ruminal micro-organisms.
>Vomiting during pregnancy.
Side effects and safety of Ceratonia siliqua Extract
Ceratonia siliqua Extract is safe for most people. There don’t seem to be any unwanted side effects.
As a food, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given carob generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status.
Not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women .
Dosage of Ceratonia siliqua Extract supplement:
Many Ceratonia siliqua Extract 10:1 supplements recommend a dosage of around 1500 mg to 2000 mg.