What is Fucoxanthin (Brown Seaweed extract) ?
Fucoxanthin is a brown seaweed pigment that is found in most brown seaweeds, as well as a few other marine sources. It is a xanthophyll, which is a molecule structurally similar to beta-carotene and vitamin A; yet fucoxanthin does not possess vitamin-like activity in the body.
There are some companies promoting it as a weight loss supplement.
Fucoxanthin is also available as a nutritional supplement in capsule form and can be found in some health food stores and online.
Benefits of taking Fucoxanthin (Brown Seaweed extract) supplements:
1) Weight Loss
Fucoxanthin is being explored for weight loss. So far, only animal studies have been done. Japanese researchers have found that fucoxanthin (isolated from wakame) promotes the loss of abdominal fat in obese mice and rats. Animals lost five to 10% of their body weight.
》Seaweed carotenoid, fucoxanthin, as a multi-functional nutrient.
Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Japan.
Fucoxanthin has a unique structure including an unusual allenic bond and 5, 6-monoepoxide in its molecule. We found that abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) weights of rats and mice fed fucoxanthin were significantly lower than those fed a control diet. The daily intake of fucoxanthin in mice also caused a significant reductions of body weight. Clear signals of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and its mRNA were detected by Western and Northern blot analyses in abdominal WAT in mice fed fucoxanthin, although there is little expression of UCP1 in WAT in mice fed a control diet. UCP1 expression in WAT by fucoxanthin intake leads to oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT mitochondria. Substrate oxidation can directly reduce WAT in animals. Fucoxanthin intake also significantly reduced blood glucose and plasma insulin. Furthermore, feeding fucoxanthin significantly increased the level of hepatic docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a most important n-3 functional polyunsaturated fatty acid in biological systems. These multi-functionalities of fucoxanthin indicate that it is an important bioactive carotenoid that is beneficial for the prevention of the metabolicsyndrome.
》Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.
School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
The term ‘fat burner’ is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.
》The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat.
Institute of Immunopathology, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
To investigate the effects of Xanthigen (brown marine algae fucoxanthin + pomegranate seed oil (PSO)) on body weight, body fat, liver lipids, and blood biochemistry; and Xanthigen and its individual components on resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese, non-diabetic female volunteers with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and normal liver fat (NLF) content.
Sixteen-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Food record data, body composition, REE (only 41 volunteers with NAFLD) and blood sample analysis were assessed weekly for 16 weeks in 151 non-diabetic, obese premenopausal women with liver fat content above 11% (NAFLD) n = 113, and below 6.5% (NLF) n = 38.
Xanthigen-600/2.4 mg (300 mg PSO + 300 mg brown seaweed extract containing 2.4 mg fucoxanthin) resulted in statistically significant reduction of body weight (5.5 +/- 1.4 kg NAFLD group and 4.9 +/- 1.2 kg NLF group, p < 0.05), waist circumference (NAFLD group only), body (3.5 +/- 1.9 kg NAFLD group, p < 0.001; 3.6 +/- 0.7 kg NLF group, p < 0.05) and liver fat content, liver enzymes (NAFLD group only), serum triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Weight loss and reduction in body and liver fat content occurred earlier in patients with NLF than in patients with NAFLD. Fucoxanthin (> 2.4 mg) and Xanthigen-400/1.6 mg (200 mg PSO + 200 mg brown seaweed extract containing 1.6 mg fucoxanthin) significantly increased REE in NAFLD subjects compared to placebo.
Xanthigen promoted weight loss, reduced body and liver fat content, and improved liver function tests in obese non-diabetic women. Xanthigen and Fucoxanthin also increased REE. This product may be considered a promising food supplement in the management of obesity.
Fucoxanthin has also been found in animal studies to decrease insulin and blood glucose levels. Researchers hypothesize that fucoxanthin anti-diabetes effect may be because fucoxanthin appears to promote the formation of DHA (the omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oil). DHA is thought to increase insulin sensitivity, improve triglycerides and reduce LDL («bad») cholesterol.
》The allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, a novel marine nutraceutical from brown seaweeds.
Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato, Hakodate, Japan.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are pathologies with rapidly growing prevalence throughout the world. A few molecular targets offer the most hope for anti-obesity and anti-diabetic therapeutics. One of the keys to success will be the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the regulation of cytokine secretions from both abdominal adipose cells and macrophage cells infiltrated into adipose tissue. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of fucoxanthin, a characteristic carotenoid found in brown seaweeds, have been reported. Nutrigenomic studies reveal that fucoxanthin induces UCP1 in abdominal WAT mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and decreases blood glucose levels through the regulation of cytokine secretions from WAT. The key structure of carotenoids for the expression of anti-obesity effect is suggested to be the carotenoid end of the polyene chromophore, which contains an allenic bond and two hydroxyl groups.
Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Preliminary research in test tubes suggests that fucoxanthin may have anti-tumor effects.
》Marine algal fucoxanthin inhibits the metastatic potential of cancer cells.
Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea; Department of Molecular and Cellular Glycobiology, College of Natural Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Kyungki-do, Republic of Korea.
Metastasis is major cause of malignant cancer-associated mortality. Fucoxanthin has effect on various pharmacological activities including anti-cancer activity. However, the inhibitory effect of fucoxanthin on cancer metastasis remains unclear. Here, we show that fucoxanthin isolated from brown alga Saccharina japonica has anti-metastatic activity. To check anti-metastatic properties of fucoxanthin, in vitro models including assays for invasion, migration, actin fiber organization and cancer cell-endothelial cell interaction were used. Fucoxanthin inhibited the expression and secretion of MMP-9 which plays a critical role in tumor invasion and migration, and also suppressed invasion of highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells as evidenced by transwell invasion assay. In addition, fucoxanthin diminished the expressions of the cell surface glycoprotein CD44 and CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) which play roles in migration, invasion and cancer-endothelial cell adhesion. Fucoxanthin markedly suppressed cell migration in wound healing assay and inhibited actin fiber formation. The adhesion of B16-F10 melanoma cells to the endothelial cells was significantly inhibited by fucoxanthin. Moreover, in experimental lung metastasis in vivo assay, fucoxanthin resulted in significant reduction of tumor nodules. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, that fucoxanthin suppresses metastasis of highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Fucoxanthin in association with Vitamin c acts as modulators of human neutrophil function.
Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences, CBS, Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Av.
Neutrophils provide the first line of defense of the innate immune system by phagocytosing, killing and digesting bacteria and fungi. During this process, neutrophils produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in excess, can damage the cells themselves and surrounding tissues. The carotenoid fucoxanthin (Fc) has been studied concerning its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Vitamin c (Vc) also demonstrates potent antioxidant action. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Fc (2 μM) in association with Vc (100 μM) on functional parameters of human neutrophils in vitro.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We evaluated the migration and phagocytic capacity, intracellular calcium mobilization, ROS production (O 2 ·- , H2O2, HOCl), myeloperoxidase activity, profile of antioxidant enzymes, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65 NFκB subunit, GSH/GSSG ratio and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in neutrophils under different stimuli.
We verified an increase in phagocytic capacity for all treatments, together with an increase in intracellular calcium only in cells treated with Fc and Fc + Vc. ROS production was reduced by all treatments, although Vc was a better antioxidant than Fc. Phosphorylation of the p-65 subunit of NFκB was reduced in cells treated with Fc + Vc and release of TNF-α and IL-6 was reduced by all treatments. These findings indicate that the regulation of inflammatory cytokines by neutrophils is not exclusively under the control of the NFκB pathway. Fc reduced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, whereas Vc increased GR activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio.
In conclusion, the results presented in this study clearly show an immunomodulatory effect of the carotenoid fc alone or in combination with Vc on the function of human neutrophils.
Side effects and safety of Fucoxanthin (Brown Seaweed extract)
Has not yet been reported that he has serious side effects.
When tested for its mutagenicity (ability to produce mutations in DNA), fucoxanthinol (the circulating metabolite of fucoxanthin) came back negative in all in vitro tests and oral dosages of 2,000mg/kg bodyweight were unable to cause short-term adverse effects.
Dosage of Fucoidan(Brown Seaweed extract) supplement:
Because dietary supplements and foods are not required to seek approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), studies to find the safest and most effective dosages for dietary supplements or foods are rarely performed. Without such studies, only vague «trial and error» information is typically available. Even if good dosing information were available, there may be significant variability of the content, purity, and strength among different brands of the same dietary supplement, making consistently safe and effective dosing difficult.