What is Hawthorne Berry Extract?
According to wikipedia,Crataegus commonly called hawthorn, or thornapple, or hawberry, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The name «hawthorn» was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. However the name is now also applied to the entire genus, and also to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. The name haw applies to the fruit, although originally it was an Old English term for hedge.
Since the 1800s, natural health products that contain hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) have been used in North America for the treatment of heart problems such as hypertension, angina, arrhythmia, and congestive heart failure. Traditionally, Native American tribes used hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) to treat gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems, and consumed the fruit as food. Hawthorn also has a long history of use in Europe and China for food, and in traditional medicine. Investigations of Crataegus spp. typically focus on the identification and quantification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have been shown to have pharmacological activity. The main flavonoids found in Crataegus spp. are hyperoside, vitexin, and additional glycosylated derivatives of these compounds. （A review of the chemistry of the genus Crataegus./Chemistry, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7, Canada.）
Hawthorn berries have been treasured for centuries as a botanical treatment for heart disorders. The brownish, wrinkled false fruit of the hawthorn tree are full of antioxidants. hawthorn berries are safe and effective in the treatment of blood pressure and circulatory issues, cardiac arrhythmia, and even chronic heart failure. Hawthorn berries also reduce inflammation, protect the stomach in times of stress, and have mild anti-bacterial properties.
Chemical constituents of Hawthorne Berry Extract
Active ingredients found in hawthorn include tannins, flavonoids (such as vitexin, rutin, quercetin, and hyperoside), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs, such as epicatechin, procyanidin, and particularly procyanidin B-2), flavone-C, triterpene acids (such ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and crataegolic acid), and phenolic acids (such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and related phenolcarboxylic acids). Standardization of hawthorn products is based on content of flavonoids (2.2%) and OPCs (18.75%).
Benefits of taking Hawthorne Berry Extract supplements:
>Effects of an aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. fruit on experimental atherosclerosis in rats.(Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.)
Atherosclerosis (AS) can result in severe cardiovascular diseases. Early indications of AS include disorders in lipid metabolism, inflammatory responses, and endothelial dysfunction. Statins are the preferred drugs for stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques because of their lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation and endothelial-protection activities. However, they can exhibit side effects and are effective in only one-third of patients. Many natural products (especially traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs)) possessing similar lipid-lowering, anti-inflammation and antioxidant activities are of interest in many studies exploring new AS drug therapy. The widely distributed hawthorn is used to prevent and cure heart disease not only in China but also in the United States and several European countries. For example, the fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. and Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br. (a commonly used hawthorn fruit in China) is used in combination with other TCMs to treat AS. Studies have also shown that the water extracts of these two hawthorn fruits are effective against hyperlipidemia by lowering lipid levels, reducing endothelial dysfunction, and inhibiting inflammation. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect and possible mechanisms of the aqueous extract of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major on AS rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida var. major was extracted with 70% ethanol; the ethanol extract was chromatographed on a D101 macroporous resin to obtain a sugar-free aqueous extract (AECP). Atherosclerotic rats were fed a high-fat diet and injected with vitamin D3 and ovalbumin. Rats were divided into five groups: normal, model, model plus simvastatin, model plus low-dose AECP, and model plus high-dose AECP. AECP and simvastatin were administered (via the intragastric route) to AECP groups and the simvastatin group. For normal and model groups, water was given for 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in blood were measured by an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-18 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pathological changes in arteries were observed using an optical microscope and the intima-media thickness (IMT) calculated. Cholesterol deposition was evaluated by filipin staining. Chemical ingredients in AECP were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative means by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
AECP significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG and LDL-C but increased HDL-C levels. It also decreased the concentrations of CRP, IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-18. AECP increased levels of ET and TXB2 but increased 6-keto-PGF1α levels. Histopathological examination showed that AECP inhibited pathological changes in the arteries of AS rats and reduced IMT. Chemical analysis suggested that the main components of AECP were chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, (-)-epicatechin, rutin and isoquercitrin.
These data suggest that AECP can inhibit AS progression in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Possible mechanisms of action include improvement of lipid metabolism, decrease in inflammatory cytokine responses, and protection of the endothelium.
>Crataegus tanacetifolia leaf extract prevents L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats: a morphological study.（Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey.）
Crataegus (hawthorn) has long been used as a folk medicine all around the world. Most of the studies with Crataegus species focus on effects on heart failure and cardiovascular disease. The pharmacological effects of Crataegus have been attributed mainly to the content of flavonoids, procyanidin, aromatic acid and cardiotonic amines. The present study investigated the blood pressure and the structure of the coronary arterial wall of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats given an aqueous leaf extract of C. tanacetifolia (100 mg/kg), for 4 weeks via gavage. It was observed that C. tanacetifolia, especially the hyperoside fraction, prevented L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats and had beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.
>An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.（Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.）
Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE) on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model.
Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer’s hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice.
These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility of CPEE as a therapeutic drug for allergic asthma.
Some application scope
>Decreased heart function.
>Blood circulation problems.
>Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias).
>High blood pressure.
>Low blood pressure.
> weight loss
> sports nutrition
Side effects and safety of Hawthorne Berry Extract
The side effects of hawthorn are unusual, yet they might cause head aches, nausea, and possibly palpitations.Women who are pregnant or nursing should not make use of this herb.
Dosage of Hawthorne Berry Extract supplement:
Many Hawthorne Berry Extract supplements recommend a dosage of around 500 mg to 2000 mg.
Consult your physician if you have any questions about the proper use of Hawthorne Berry Extract supplements.