What is Mangosteen Extract?
Mangosteen species are of economic and commercial interest, with tremendous demand for the fruit in domestic and export markets. Thailand is responsible for approximately 85% of the total production of 150,000 tons per year. Malaysia and Indonesia are also major commercial producing countries. In the United States alone, mangosteen juice sales for 2007 were estimated at $98 million. Depending on the growth cycle, a single tree may produce 500 to 800 fruits in one year. Other commercial uses include landscape material (the crown) and natural dye for cotton and silk yarn.
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), regarded as the «Queen of Fruits,» is native to the Malay Archipelago and Indonesia. Today it is abundantly grown in most wet, tropical regions of the Southeast Asia and beyond. For hundreds of years, the people of Southeast Asia have used mangosteen, especially the rind, to ward off and treat infections, reduce pain or control fever, and treat various other ailments. Xanthones and Tannins (polyphenols) are the main function ingredients of mangosteen. Scientific research showed that mangosteen contains more than 40 xanthones (Alpha-mangostin is a major component),- roughly 20% of about 200 xanthones found in nature. The Mangosteen is the single, most abundant source of xanthones known to science.
The rind, leaves, fruit, and bark of mangosteen have been used in folk medicine for thousands of years. The rind has been used medicinally to treat thick mucus, cystitis, diarrhea, dysentery, fever, as well as intestinal and skin ailments, such as eczema and pruritus.
Chemical constituents of Mangosteen Extract
Numerous studies have found high concentrations of xanthones, a class of polyphenolic compounds, in mangosteen. Xanthones have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiplatelet aggregation, antithrombotic, and vasorelaxant activities, prevent oxidative damage of low-density lipoprotein, histamine, and serotonin receptor blocker activity, and inhibit HIV. The xanthones and tannins of the mangosteen pericarp protect against insects, fungi, plant viruses, bacteria, and animals while the fruit is still immature. Of the 200 known xanthones, nearly 50 are found in mangosteen.
Benefits of taking Mangosteen Extract supplements:
As early as 1855, a German scientist identified mangostin, a powerful antioxidant, known as a xanthone, which appeared to fight infection, fungus, bacteria, histamines and possibly cancer.210 xanthones have been identified in nature, and over 40 of those have been found in the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit.
What Are Xanthones?
The subsurface of the mangosteen excocarp does contain different polyphenols that do include xanthone and tannins. Xanthonoid is a natural chemical phenolic compound that is formed from the xanthone backbone and it is a member of the Clusiaceae family. Xanthone, itself, is an organic compound, and it is used as both an insecticide, ovacide for coding moth eggs, and also a larvicide.
Tannins are a bitter plant compound that binds itself to proteins, amino acids, and other alkaloids. The peel of the mangosteen is loaded with xanthonoids, one of which is mangostatin, and other key phytochemicals that have super anti-oxidant properties in them.
There have been lots of studies done on the peel of the mangosteen and some amazing findings were learned. From the juice, which comes directly from the mangosteen peel, there is tons of good health aspects.
Mangosteen’s high nutritional value makes it an excellent choice for achieving and maintaining total body wellness, as well as for treating an incredible variety of health conditions. In fact, you may be shocked by the variety of health-enhancing properties this exotic fruit provides.
Here’s a partial list of the 200-plus medicinal benefits of mangosteen that have been documented:
- maintains healthy skin
- strengthens the immune system
- helps relieve fatigue
- helps prevent allergic reactions
- helps prevent arthritis
- helps prevent cancer
- strengthens cardiovascular health
- helps stabilize blood sugar
- helps lower blood pressure
- helps prevent atherosclerosis
- helps prevent kidney stones
- helps prevent cataracts
- helps with depression
- helps with diarrhea
- relieves fungal infections
- helps prevent glaucoma
- helps with inflammation
- helps in nerve pain
- helps in weight loss
- helps prevent osteoporosis
- relieves anxiety
- helps prevent gum disease
- helps lower fever
- supports restful sleep
1: Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):203-8.Links Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena KG, Dharmaratne HR.
Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
«Alpha-Mangostin, isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia mangostana L., was found to be active against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with MIC values of 6.25 and 6.25 to 12.5 microg/ml, respectively. Our studies showed synergism between alpha-mangostin and gentamicin (GM) against VRE, and alpha-mangostin and vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) against MRSA. Further studies showed partial synergism between alpha-mangostin and commercially available antibiotics such as ampicillin and minocycline. These findings suggested that alpha-mangostin alone or in combination with GM against VRE and in combination with VCM against MRSA might be useful in controlling VRE and MRSA infections.»
2: Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2008 Aug;60(4-5):357-64. Epub 2008 Apr 18.
Ameliorative prospective of alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative from Garcinia mangostana against beta-adrenergic cathecolamine-induced myocardial toxicity and anomalous cardiac TNF-alpha and COX-2 expressions in rats. Sampath PD, Vijayaragavan K.
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, India.
«Altered membrane integrity and inflammation play a key role in cardiovascular damage. We investigated the salubrious effect of exogenously administered alpha-mangostin against beta-adrenergic cathecolamine-induced cardiovascular toxicity»… «Cardiac TNF-alpha and COX-2 expressions were significantly elevated in ISO-intoxicated rats. Pre-co-treatment with alpha-mangostin (200mg/kg body wt.) orally for 8 days significantly attenuated these abnormalities and restored the levels to near normalcy when compared to ISO intoxicated group of rats.»
«In conclusion, alpha-mangostin preserves the myocardial membrane integrity and extenuates anomalous TNF-alpha and COX-2 expressions by mitigating ISO-induced oxidative stress and cellular damage effectively. Restoration of cellular normalcy accredits the cytoprotective role of alpha-mangostin.»
3: Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2007;72(3):431-41.Links Effects of alpha-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp extract and imidacloprid on Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and non-target organisms: toxicity and detoxification mechanism. Bullangpoti V, Visetson S, Milne J, Milne M, Sudthongkong C, Pronbanlualap S.
Dept. of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.
«The brown planthopper, Nilaparvato lugens Stat. (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest in rice fields. Outbreaks of BPH, which are resistant to many synthetic insecticides, can cause total rice crop loss. This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of mangosteen pericarp (Garcina mangostana L.) as an alternative control of BPH Thailand strain…»
«The results from this research indicate that mangosteen pericarp extract can be an alternative insecticide for the control of BPH, which may possess high efficiency, cause with fewer environmental problems and result in less resistance in the BPH.»
4: Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Feb;46(2):688-93. Epub 2007 Sep 26.Click here to read Links Anti-inflammatory activity of mangostins from Garcinia mangostana. Chen LG, Yang LL, Wang CC.
Graduate Institute of Biomedical and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, National Chiayi University, 300 University Road, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, ROC.
«The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn (Guttiferae) is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in Southeast Asia. Two xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostins, were isolated from the fruit hull of G. mangostana, and both significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and PGE(2) production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells»…
«In an in vivo study, alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited mice carrageenan-induced paw edema. In conclusion, alpha- and gamma-mangostins from G. mangostana are bioactive substances with anti-inflammatory effects.»
Side effects and safety of Mangosteen Extract
There are no known side effects of Mangosteen Extract。
Dosage of Mangosteen Extract supplement:
Many recommend taking a 100 mg to 200 mg dose of Mangosteen Extract once per day with a full glass of water. It is usually best to take it before a meal so that it is digested better.