What is Noopept?
According to wikipedia , Noopept (Russian: Ноопепт; GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) is a medication promoted and prescribed in Russia and neighbouring countries as a nootropic within the smart drugs category. The registered brand name Noopept® (Ноопепт) is trademarked by the manufacturer JSC LEKKO Pharmaceuticals. The compound is patented in both the US and Russia. Patent of Russian Federation number 2119496, US Patent number 5,439,930 issued 8/8/1995. In Russia Noopept is considered a nootropic drug with neuroprotective properties. It is sold as a dietary supplement in the US and as a medicine in other countries.
Noopept is a synthetic nootropic molecule structurally similar to the endogeous dipeptide cycloprolylglycine (the amino acids proline and glycine in a cyclical configuation). Noopept itself appears to have bioactivity, as does its metabolite cycloprolylglycine (with Noopept sometimes being seen as a cycloprolylglycine pro-drug).
It is commonly said to be 1000-fold as potent as Piracetam (derived from the abstract of a German review) although elsewhere it has been claimed to be more variable, at somewhere between 200 and 50,000 when comparing the two molecules on a dose-per-dose basis. On a structural basis, Noopept is a dipeptide conjugate of Piracetam.
How does Noopept work?
It has been found to stimulate the expression of NGF and BDNF in rat hippocampus.Expression of the studied neurotropic factors in the cerebral cortex was below the control after single administration of Noopept, while chronic administration caused a slight increase in BDNF expression. In the hippocampus, expression of mRNA for both neurotrophins increased after acute administration of Noopept.
Benefits of taking Noopept supplements:
Noopept is a supplement that is used to boost intelligence, cognitive functions and attention.
>The antiamnestic effect of nootropic substances in rats(Article in Russian)
It has been established in experiments in rats that some nootropic substances (oxyracetam, aniracetam, nooglutil, mexidol, new 3-hydroxypyridine derivative SK-170, piracetam and noopept) produce marked antiamnestic effect on various models of amnesia (induced by microwave irradiation, acute hypoxia, and motion sickness). At the same time, meclophenoxate exhibited antiamnestic effect in the first and second models of amnesia, while 9-aminoacridine derivative HTOS-404 was only effective in the model of amnesia caused by microwave irradiation. The antiamnestic effect of nooglutil and SK-170 was caused to a significant degree by activation of non-NMDA receptors of excitatory amino acids (generally AMPA receptors), while the effect of mexidol was related to GABA(A) receptors.
>Effects of nootropic drugs on behavior of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in the exploratory cross-maze test
Vasil’eva EV, Salimov RM, Kovalev GI.
Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil).
Noopept and anti-inflammatory action
>An experimental study of the anti-inflammatory action of noopept and its effect on the level of cytokines
Alekseeva SV, Kovalenko LP, Tallerova AV, Gudasheva TA, Durnev AD.
The anti-inflammatory effects of noopept (dipeptide analog of piracetam) upon a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg in comparison to the reference drug diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied on a model of acute exudative inflammation induced by carrageenan in outbred rats and concanavalin A (Con A) in CBA mice. The level of cytokines was studied on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model (single administration, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) with 5-day administration of noopept at a dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p., before endotoxin injection) in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of noopept led to a significant suppression of the inflammatory response to both carrageenan and Con A. The administration of Con A caused a 16-fold increase in the level of IL-6 interleukin in the blood serum of mice as compared to control. Noopept (5 mg/kg) reduced the level of IL-6 by a factor of 1.8 in the inflammatory response to Con A. The administration of LPS led to pronounced increase in the levels ofpro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the blood serum of test mice as compared to intact animals. The course administration of noopept (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the level of IL-6 and reduced by half the level of TNF-alpha.
Side effects and safety of Noopept
Registered producers of Noopept report the smart drug as being safe in clinical trials. They promote the drug as being effective, and having low toxicity when recommended dosages are ingested.
There seems to be a cumulative effect to taking this smart drug, suggesting that the beneficial effects tend to increase over time. Also, there are no reported dependencies developed in using Noopept. Positive effects of this medication appear to stay in the system long after the medication has been stopped.
Dosage of Noopept supplement:
The recommended oral intake is between 10 and 30mg, which is from the manufacturer of Noopept for the purposes of treating cerebrovascular and posttraumatic cognitive deficiency.