What is Rauwolfia Canescens(Rauwolfia Serpentina)?
Rauwolfia Canescens is a genus of evergreen trees and shrubs in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae. The genus is named to honor Leonhard Rauwolf. The genus can mainly be found in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and various oceanic islands. The best known species is Rauvolfia caffra, the South African quinine tree.
Rauwolfia serpentina.is a traditional herbal medicine, the root was brewed as a tea and used in humans to treat hypertension,insanity, snakebite, and cholera. Reserpine was the first drug found to interfere with the human sympathetic nervous system, and it initiated the effective pharmacotherapeutic control of hypertension. Rauwolfia serpentina is a naturally occurring drug that has been used for centuries.
Chemical constituents of Rauwolfia Canescens (Rauwolfia Serpentina) Extract？
Rauwolfia Canescens Powder Extract contains a large number of indole alkaloids, such as reserpine, marin, Mali, a new o, a variety of active alkaloids, such as yohimbine has been isolated from Laura fu wood plants identified more than 200 alkaloid, total base, reserpine has been widely for medicine production by clinical application, such as rauwolfia, reserpine pills, Beijing rauwolfia 1, 2, etc.; Have very clear drop pressure effect. Laura fu wood in addition to containing a large number of alkaloids in root, also contains a lot of other bioactive components (such as rutin, etc.) on the pharmaceutical production at present only with her fu wood root as a raw material to produce total base (rauwolfia) and reserpine.
Benefits of taking Rauwolfia Canescens (Rauwolfia Serpentina) Extract supplements:
- Rauwolfia Canescens (Rauwolfia Serpentina) Extract and Antihypertension
>Combined HPLC-DAD-MS, HPLC-MS(n) and NMR spectroscopy for quality control of plant extracts: the case of a commercial blend sold as dietary supplement.
Karioti A1, Giocaliere E, Guccione C, Pieraccini G, Gallo E, Vannacci A, Bilia AR.
1Department of Chemistry, Building of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Florence, Via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy.
The efficiency of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy along with HPLC-DAD-MS analyses in characterising the content of a dietary supplement is demonstrated. Experiments directly performed on a lyophilised sample of a commercial product gave details on the quality control of the product. The lack of the marker constituents of some of the declared plant species (Crataegus oxyacantha, Olea europea, Capsella bursa-pastoris and Fumaria officinalis) and the presence of banned adulterants, responsible for the strong antihypertensive effect of the supplement were established. The analyses proved the presence of indole alkaloids belonging to the group of Rauwolfia sp., such as ajmaline, reserpine and yohimbine. Quantitative HPLC analysis showed that the content of reserpine in the product was in the therapeutic range and therefore responsible for the collapses of the patients.
- Rauwolfia Canescens Extract and Brain
>Cerebellar neurohistology and behavioural effects of gongronema latifolium and Rauwolfia vomitoria in mice.
Ekong MB1, Peter MD, Peter AI, Eluwa MA, Umoh IU, Igiri AO, Ekanem TB.
Rauwolfia vomitoria and Gongronema latifolium are medicinal herbs used for the treatment of hypertension, malaria, mental and intestinal disorders. G. latifolium is known to prevent the side effects reported for R. vomitoria. Therefore we decided to investigate what effects a combination treatment of G. latifolium and R. vomitoria would have on mice. Thirty male mice weighing 15-26 g were divided into 4 groups of 6 mice each. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were the treatment groups, and were treated with 150 mg/kg of R. vomitoria root bark extract, 200 mg/kg of G. latifolium leaf extract, and combination of both extracts, respectively. The control group received 0.5 mL of 20% Tween. The treatments were by oral gavages and lasted for 7 days. The open field maze neurobehavioural test was performed on day 8 to ascertain locomotion, exploration and anxiety, and the animals were immediately sacrificed. Results indicate lower body weights, though no difference was seen in the brain weights and behavioural test parameters in the treatment groups compared with the control group. Neurohistology of the cerebellum showed slight hypertrophy of Purkinje cells, with brain matrix loss in treatment groups 2 and 3, but group 4 showed no apparent histopathology. The cellular population was higher, while the cellular sizes and total cellular areas were lower in all the treatment groups. This study showed that R. vomitoria root bark and G. latifolium leaf extracts may individually cause cerebellar cytoarchitecture changes, which may be prevented with the combination of both remedies.
- Rauwolfia Canescens (Rauwolfia Serpentina) Extract and Anticancer
> Antitumor Activities of Rauwolfia vomitoria Extract and Potentiation of Carboplatin Effects Against Ovarian Cancer.
Yu J1, Ma Y1, Drisko J2, Chen Q1.
Tumor resistance to platinum-based drugs has been an obstacle to the treatment of ovarian cancer. Extract of the plant Rauwolfia vomitoria has long been used by cancer patients. However, there have not been systematic studies of its anticancer activity.
In an effort to enhance the effectiveness of platinum-based drugs, we investigated the anticancer effect of a Rauwolfia vomitoria extract (Rau), both alone and in combination with carboplatin (Cp).
In vitro cytotoxicity and colony formation were evaluated in several ovarian cancer cell lines. In vivo effects were evaluated in an intraperitoneal ovarian cancer mouse model. The combination of Rau and Cp was assessed using Chou-Talalay’s constant ratio design and median effect analysis based on the isobologram principle to determine the combination index values.
Rau decreased cell growth in all 3 tested ovarian cancer cell lines dose dependently and completely inhibited formation of colonies in soft agar. Apoptosis was induced in a time- and dose-dependent manner and was the predominant form of Rau-induced cell death. Synergy of Rau with Cp was detected, with combination index values <1 and dose reduction index values for Cp ranging from 1.7- to 7-fold. Tumor growth in mice was significantly suppressed by 36% or 66% with Rau treatment alone at a low (20 mg/kg) or a high dose (50 mg/kg), respectively, an effect comparable to that of Cp alone. The volume of ascitic fluid and the number of nonblood cells in ascites were also significantly decreased. Combining Rau with Cp remarkably enhanced the effect of Cp and reduced tumor burden by 87% to 90% and ascites volume by 89% to 97%.
Rau has potent antitumor activity and in combination significantly enhances the effect of Cp against ovarian cancer.
>Indole alkaloids from leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.
Zhang BJ1, Peng L, Wu ZK, Bao MF, Liu YP, Cheng GG, Luo XD, Cai XH.
Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells
- Rauwolfia Canescens (Rauwolfia Serpentina) Extract and Anti-diabetic
Streptomycete endophytes from anti-diabetic medicinal plants of the Western Ghats inhibit alpha-amylase and promote glucose uptake.
Akshatha VJ1, Nalini MS, D’Souza C, Prakash HS.
α-amylase inhibitor retards the liberation of glucose from dietary complex carbohydrates and delays the absorption of glucose. The purpose of the study was to isolate and select α-amylase inhibitor-producing endophytic actinomycetes from the leaves and stems of Leucas ciliata and Rauwolfia densiflora, two of the well-known medicinal plants used in the treatment for diabetes. Sterilized plant samples were inoculated on the actinomycete isolation agar medium containing 50 ppm cycloheximide and incubated for 4-8 weeks at room temperature. The actinomycetes were isolated on agar medium and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences, the isolates exhibiting >99% similarities were submitted to NCBI, and gene accession numbers were obtained. They were inoculated to International Streptomyces Project 1 medium (ISP 1) for fermentation. The extracts obtained were tested for the anti-diabetic potential by the inhibition of alpha-amylase by colorimetric assay and glucose uptake in the porcine hemidiaphragm. Streptomyces longisporoflavus (JX965948) isolated from the stem fragments of L. ciliata exhibited alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 values = 162.3 ± 1.05 μg ml⁻¹) in comparison with the standard Acarbose™ (IC50 value = 73.1 ± 1.12 μg ml⁻¹). Extract of Streptomyces sp. (JQ926174) from R. densiflora indicated glucose uptake in the porcine hemidiaphragm. Results indicate for the first time the potential of endophytic streptomycete extracts with anti-diabetic activity.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:
Endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from two medicinal species of the Western Ghats, a biodiversity ‘hotspot’ in southern India and screened for the anti-diabetic potential for inhibition of α-amylase and improved glucose uptake in the porcine hemidiaphragm. Results indicate the inhibition of α-amylase by Streptomyces longisporoflavus extract with IC50 values of 162.3 ± 1.05 μg ml⁻¹ in comparison with the standard inhibitor Acarbose™ with IC50 value 73.1 ± 1.12 μg ml⁻¹. Further, extract from Streptomyces sp. showed increased glucose uptake by hemidiaphragm. The present investigation implicates the potential of endophytic actinomycetes as sources of anti-diabetic agents.
Antagonistic effect of alkaloids and saponins on bioactivity in the quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra sond.): further evidence to support biotechnology in traditional medicinal plants.
Milugo TK, Omosa LK, Ochanda JO, Owuor BO, Wamunyokoli FA, Oyugi JO, Ochieng JW1.
1Center for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, University of Nairobi, P,O, Box 30197, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.[email protected]
The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals.
Antioxidant activity was determined on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) while major phytochemicals were identified by multiple tests on methanol fractions.
- caffra showed promise as a cure, with antioxidant activity comparable to the commercially used drug quercetin (R. caffra = 79.7% ±1.9; quercetin = 82.6% ± 2.0). However, we found two phytochemicals with possible antagonistic effect: co-occurrence of alkaloids and saponins significantly reduced antioxidant activity (alkaloids only = 63%; alkaloids plus saponins = 15%; steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides = 82%), thus alkaloids and saponins should be exclusive to each other in drug formulations.
Antagonistic relationship among phytochemicals would affect the efficacy of crude extracts as used in traditional medicine. Unlike in herbal medicine, use of modern biotechnology in extraction, purification and design of optimal combinations will ensure efficient drug formulations with optimum bioactivity and minimum toxicity. Metabolic pathway engineering under a controlled environment may optimize availability of desired compounds.
- It has a calming effect.
- Used as febrifuge, as stimulant to uterine contractions, for insomnia and insanity.
- Used for high blood pressure. It capable of lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
- Used as antidote to stings and bites of insects and poisonous reptiles.
- It can reduce blood pressure, for its CNS depressant effect, and as hypnotic.
- Used in the treatment of schizophrenia.
- It can treat mental disorders, i.e., anxiety, paranoia, nervousness.
Side effects and safety of Rauwolfia Canescens (Rauwolfia Serpentina) Extract
Mild side effects are frequent, consisting of nasal stuffiness, fatigue, weight gain, decreased initiative, drowsiness, nightmares, and diarrhea. Symptoms can be relieved by reducing the dosage without sacrificing its hypotensive effect. In large doses, depression occurs with significant frequency.
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.
Dosage of Side effects and safety of Rauwolfia Canescens (Rauwolfia Serpentina) Extract supplement:
Many Rauwolfia Canescens Extract (Rauwolfia Serpentina Extract) supplements recommend a dosage of around 1500 mg to 2000 mg
Consult your physician if you have any questions about the proper use of Rauwolfia Canescens Extract (Rauwolfia Serpentina Extract) supplements.